A strike by London Underground workers caused travel chaos on Tuesday, crippling Tube services and causing misery for commuters trying to get to work.
Members of the Rail, Maritime and Transport union (RMT) walked out for 24 hours in a bitter dispute over jobs, pensions and conditions.
People tried to get to work on buses or in taxis but huge queues formed, forcing many to give up and go home.
Road congestion around the capital was at its highest level of the year so far as some commuters attempted to drive through the capital.
The disruption came on the same day as Tube and bus fares went up by an average of 4.8%.
Picket lines were mounted outside Tube stations, while the union called on London Mayor Sadiq Khan to intervene.
Another 24-hour walkout will be held on Thursday, and there will be knock-on effects on services on Wednesday and Friday.
TfL chief operating officer Andy Lord said: “We haven’t proposed any changes to pensions or terms and conditions, and nobody has or will lose their jobs because of the proposals we have set out, so this action is completely unnecessary.
“We know our customers deserve better than this and that is why we’re urging the RMT to talk to us so we can find a resolution to this dispute and call off this action, which is threatening London’s recovery from the pandemic.
“I’d like to apologise to customers whose journeys have been disrupted today. There is currently a high level of disruption to Tube services with no service across most of the network as a result of the RMT’s strike action.
“I’d urge customers whose journeys normally rely on the Tube to work from home if they can, consider alternative modes of transport and to check before they travel, leaving extra time for essential journeys.”
A spokesman for Mr Khan said the strikes will cause disruption to Londoners and businesses trying to recover from two devastating years.
“TfL are working to mitigate the impact of the strikes but disruption is inevitable.”
RMT general secretary Mick Lynch said: “Sadiq Khan should be standing up to Tory ministers who want to needlessly attack jobs, pensions and conditions of key transport workers.
“It is this political failure that has left Tube workers with no choice but to strike this week.
“Our members have been left paying the price for a turf war between City Hall and the government and they are not having it, as can be seen right across London today.”
TfL issued an update on Tube services at 11.30am:
Central line – continuing to run the shuttles below:
– Between White City and Ealing Broadway/West Ruislip
– Between Liverpool Street and Loughton
– Between Newbury Park and Leytonstone via Woodford
Northern line – continuing to run the shuttles below:
– Between East Finchley and High Barnet/Mill Hill East
– Between Edgware and Golders Green
Piccadilly line – continuing to run the shuttle below:
– Between Acton Town and Hounslow Central
District line – continuing to run the shuttles below:
– Between Upminster and West Ham
– Between High Street Kensington and Wimbledon
No service currently on Bakerloo, Circle, Hammersmith and City, Jubilee, Metropolitan, Victoria and Waterloo and City lines.
TfL said disruption will continue into Wednesday morning, with no Tubes until at least 7.30am and a severely disrupted service until later in the morning.
It said customers should avoid travelling in the early morning and aim to make their journeys later in the day.
Further disruption is expected all day on Thursday during another strike, with customers advised to work from home if they can, and into the morning of Friday.
A statement said: “We have operated as much of the network as possible given the drivers who were working.
“Shuttle services have operated on the Bakerloo, Northern, Central, Piccadilly and District lines during the day.
“No service has operated on the other lines, and no service is expected to run on the Victoria, Metropolitan, Jubilee, Circle or Hammersmith and City lines today.”