Three more ships carrying thousands of tons of corn left Ukrainian ports on Friday, in the latest sign that a negotiated deal to export grain trapped since Russia invaded Ukraine nearly six months ago is slowly moving forward.
But major hurdles lie ahead to get food to the countries that need it most.
The ships bound for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Turkey follow the first grain shipment to pass through the Black Sea since the start of the war.
The passage of that vessel heading for Lebanon earlier this week was the first under the breakthrough deal brokered by Turkey and the United Nations with Russia and Ukraine.
The Black Sea region is dubbed the world’s breadbasket, with Ukraine and Russia key global suppliers of wheat, corn, barley and sunflower oil that millions of impoverished people in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia rely on for survival.
The first vessels to leave are among more than a dozen bulk carriers and cargo ships that had been loaded with grain but stuck in ports since Russia invaded in late February.
And the cargoes are not expected to have a significant impact on the global price of corn, wheat and soybeans for several reasons.
For starters, the exports under the deal are off to a slow, cautious start due to the threat of explosive mines floating off Ukraine’s Black Sea coastline.
And while Ukraine is a major exporter of wheat to developing nations, there are other countries, such as the United States and Canada, with far greater production levels that can affect global wheat prices. And they face the threat of drought.
“Ukraine is about 10% of the international trade in wheat, but in terms of production it is not even 5%,” said David Laborde, an expert on agriculture and trade at the International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington.
Around six million tons of the trapped grain is wheat, but just half of that is for human consumption, Mr Laborde said.
There is an expectation that Ukraine could produce 30% to 40% less grain over the coming next 12 months due to the war, though other estimates put that figure at 70%.
Grain prices peaked after Russia’s invasion, and while some have since come down to their pre-war levels, they are still higher than before the Covid-19 pandemic.
Corn prices are 70% higher than at the end of February 2020, said Jonathan Haines, senior analyst at data and analytics firm Gro Intelligence. He said wheat prices are around 60% higher than in February 2020.
One reason prices remain high is the impact of drought on harvests in North America, China and other regions, as well as the higher price of fertiliser needed for farming.
“When fertiliser prices are high, farmers may use less fertiliser. And when they use less fertiliser, they will produce less. And if they will produce less, supply will continue to remain insufficient,” Mr Laborde said.
The three ships that departed Ukraine on Friday give hope that exports will ramp up to developing nations, where many are facing the increased threat of food shortages and hunger.
“The movement of three additional vessels overnight is a very positive sign and will continue to build confidence that we’re moving in the right direction,” Mr Haines said.
“If the flow of grain from Ukraine continues to expand, it will help relieve global supply constraints.”
The Turkish-flagged Polarnet, carrying 12,000 tons of corn, left the Chornomorsk port destined for Karasu, Turkey.
The Panama-flagged Navi Star left Odesa’s port for Ireland with 33,000 tons of corn. The Maltese-flagged Rojen left Chornomorsk for the United Kingdom carrying over 13,000 tons of corn, the UN said.
It added that the Joint Coordination Centre — run by officials from Ukraine, Russia, Turkey and the UN overseeing the deal signed in Istanbul last month — authorised the three ships and inspected a ship headed for Ukraine.
The Barbados-flagged Fulmar S was inspected in Istanbul and is headed for the Chornomorsk port.
The checks seek to ensure that outbound cargo ships carry only grain, fertiliser or food and not any other commodities and that inbound ships are not carrying weapons.
The vessels are accompanied by Ukrainian pilot ships for safe passage because of explosive mines strewn in the Black Sea.
After Turkey, which has relations with both Russia and Ukraine, helped broker the food deal two weeks ago, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was to meet Russian President Vladimir Putin later on Friday in Sochi, Russia. That meeting follows another face-to-face meeting the two leaders had in Iran three weeks ago.
In other developments on Friday:
— Ukraine’s presidential office said that at least eight civilians were killed and 16 others were wounded in the latest Russian shelling.
The eastern Donetsk region has been facing the most intensive Russian barrage, and Donetsk Governor Pavlo Kyrylenko repeated his call for all residents to evacuate.
“Shellings and bombings are going round the clock, and people who refuse to evacuate risk being killed on their pillows,” Mr Kyrylenko said in televised remarks.
In Ukraine’s second-largest city of Kharkiv, three districts have come under massive shelling. Several apartment buildings and a street market were damaged, and three people were wounded.
Russian shelling also targeted the city of Zaporizhzhia and several towns along the frontline in the region. For a second straight day, the Russians also shelled the city of Nikopol that faces the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant across the Dnieper River. Dozens of houses were damaged.
The Russians also hit the southern city of Mykolaiv.