The US House has approved a debt ceiling and budget cuts package as President Joe Biden and Speaker Kevin McCarthy assembled a bipartisan coalition of centrist Democrats and Republicans against fierce conservative blowback and progressive dissent.
The hard-fought deal pleased few, but politicians assessed it was better than the alternative — a devastating economic upheaval if Congress failed to act.
Tensions ran high throughout the day as hard-right Republicans refused the deal, while Democrats said “extremist” Republican views were risking a debt default as soon as next week.
With the House vote of 314-117, the Bill now heads to the Senate with passage expected by week’s end.
But amid discontent from Republicans who said the spending restrictions did not go far enough, Mr McCarthy said it is only a “first step”.
Earlier, Mr Biden expressed optimism that the agreement he negotiated with Mr McCarthy to lift the nation’s borrowing limit would pass the chamber and avoid an economically disastrous default on America’s debts.
The president departed Washington for Colorado, where he is scheduled to deliver the commencement address on Thursday at the US Air Force Academy.
“God willing by the time I land, Congress will have acted, the House will have acted, and we’ll be one step closer,” he said.
That was not quite the case — the vote began about an hour and a half after Mr Biden arrived in Colorado.
Mr Biden sent top White House officials to the Capitol to shore up backing. Mr McCarthy worked to sell sceptical fellow Republicans, even fending off challenges to his leadership, in the rush to avert a potentially disastrous US default.
Swift passage later in the week by the Senate would ensure government checks will continue to go out to Social Security recipients, veterans and others and would prevent financial upheaval at home and abroad.
Mr Biden and Mr McCarthy were counting on support from the political centre, a rarity in divided Washington, testing the leadership of the Democratic president and the Republican speaker.
Overall, the 99-page Bill restricts spending for the next two years, suspends the debt ceiling into January 2025 and changes some policies, including imposing new work requirements for older Americans receiving food aid and greenlighting an Appalachian natural gas line that many Democrats oppose. It bolsters funds for defence and veterans.
Raising the nation’s debt limit, now 31 trillion dollars, ensures Treasury can borrow to pay already incurred US debts.
Top Republican deal negotiator Garret Graves said Republicans were fighting for budget cuts after Democrats piled onto deficits with extra spending, first during the Covid-19 crisis and later with Mr Biden’s Inflation Reduction Act, with its historic investment to fight climate change.
But Republican Chip Roy, a member of the Freedom Caucus helping to lead the opposition, said: “My beef is that you cut a deal that shouldn’t have been cut.”
For weeks negotiators laboured late into the night to strike the deal with the White House, and for days Mr McCarthy has worked to build support among sceptics.
The speaker has faced a tough crowd. Cheered on by conservative senators and outside groups, the hard-right House Freedom Caucus lambasted the compromise as falling well short of the needed spending cuts, and they vowed to try to halt passage.
A much larger conservative faction, the Republican Study Committee, declined to take a position. Even rank-and-file centrist conservatives were unsure, leaving Mr McCarthy searching for votes from his slim Republican majority.
Ominously, the conservatives warned of possibly trying to oust Mr McCarthy over the compromise.
House Democratic leader Hakeem Jeffries said it was up to Mr McCarthy to turn out at least 150 Republican votes, two-thirds of the majority, even as he assured reporters that Democrats would supply the rest to prevent a default. In the 435-member House, 218 votes are needed for approval.
As the tally faltered in the afternoon procedural vote, Mr Jeffries stood silently and raised his green voting card, signalling that the Democrats would fill in the gap to ensure passage. They did, advancing the Bill that 29 hard-right Republicans, many from the Freedom Caucus, refused to back.
Liberal discontent, though, ran strong as some Democrats also broke away, decrying the new work requirements for older Americans, those 50-54, in the food aid programme.
Some Democrats were also incensed that the White House negotiated into the deal changes to the landmark National Environmental Policy Act and approval of the controversial Mountain Valley Pipeline natural gas project.
In the Senate, Democratic Majority Leader Chuck Schumer and Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell are working for passage by week’s end.
Mr Schumer warned there is ”no room for error”.
Senators, who have remained largely on the sidelines during much of the negotiations, are insisting on amendments to reshape the package.
But making any changes at this stage seemed unlikely with so little time to spare before Monday’s deadline.